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自噬

Autophagy is a catabolic pathway that promotes the degradation and recycling of cellular components. Proteins, lipids, and even whole organelles are engulfed in autophagosomes and delivered to the lysosome for elimination. In response to stress, autophagymediates the degradation of cell components, which are recycled to generate the nutrients and building blocks required to sustain cellular homeostasis. Moreover, it has an important role in cellular quality control, particularly in neurons, in which the total burden of altered proteins and damaged organelles cannot be reduced by redistribution to daughter cells through cell division. Autophagyoccurs in all cells and tissues, and it is regulated by the autophagy-related (Atg) genes[1]

Autophagy is the primary cellular catabolic program activated in response to nutrient starvation. Initiation of autophagy, particularly by amino acid withdrawal, requires the ULK kinases. ULK1 protein kinase and the VPS34 lipid kinase are key regulators of autophagy initiation and progression. Mammals have two homologues of the yeast autophagy initiating ATG1 kinase, ULK1 and ULK2. ULK1 is regulated by the nutrient and energy sensitive kinases TORC1 and AMPK[2]. The Atg1/ULK1 (uncoordinated-51 like kinase 1) protein complex plays an essential role regulating autophagy in mammalian cells[3]

Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), a Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated protein kinase, is tightly controlled by autophagy-lysosome degradation as well as by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway[4]

References:

[1] Boya P Why autophagy is good for retinal ganglion cells? Eye (Lond). 2016 Dec 16.

[2] Russell RC, et al. ULK1 induces autophagy by phosphorylating Beclin-1 and activating VPS34 lipid kinase. Nat Cell Biol. 2013 Jul;15(7):741-50.

[3] Chan EY. Regulation and function of uncoordinated-51 like kinase proteins. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012 Sep 1;17(5):775-85.

[4] Park S, et al. Interplay between Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) and p62/SQSTM-1 in Selective Autophagy. PLoS One. 2016 Sep 15;11(9):e0163029.

 
Autophagy通路中的靶点

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