1. 重组蛋白
  2. Immune Checkpoint Proteins
  3. Butyrophilins

Butyrophilins  

嗜乳脂蛋白 (Butyrophilins, BTN family) 与调节蛋白 B7 家族相似,属于免疫球蛋白 (Ig) 超家族。Butyrophilins 是一种糖蛋白,包含两个细胞外免疫球蛋白结构域,恒定的 IgC,可变的 IgV,并通过二硫键固定,以及跨膜区域。Butyrophilins 存在于淋巴细胞、树突状细胞、单核细胞、巨噬细胞、中性粒细胞和嗜酸性粒细胞上,并作为免疫系统调节器 (刺激或抑制作用)。在人类中,BTN 家庭包括 7 个 butyrophilin 蛋白 (BTN1A1/BTN2A1/BTN2A2/BTN2A3/BTN3A1/BTN3A2/BTN3A3), 5 个 butyrophilin 样蛋白 (BTNL) (BTNL2/BTNL3/BTNL8/BTNL9/BTNL10) 和 SKINT 样因子,而在小鼠中,有 11 个Butyrophilins蛋白:BTN1A1/BTN2A2/BTNL1/BTNL2/BTLN4/BTNL5/BTNL6/BTNL7/BTNL9/BTNL10 和SKINTL。Butyrophilins 也被证明在各种感染中发挥作用,例如结核病或包括结节病、系统性红斑狼疮、类风湿性关节炎、遗传代谢性疾病、溃疡性结肠炎、癌症和肾病等疾病。
值得注意的是,在常规 T 细胞功能调节方面,一些 BTN/BTNLs 分子具有共抑制或共刺激作用。例如,人 BTN3A1 (CD277)、小鼠 BTNL2 和小鼠 BTNL1 被认为是共抑制分子;而 BTNL8 和 BTN3A2 被认为是共刺激分子。

Butyrophilins (BTN family), similarly as the B7 family of regulatory proteins, belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. Butyrophilins are glycoproteins contain two extracellular immunoglobulin domains, stabilized with disulfide bonds: constant IgC, and variable IgV and a transmembrane region. Butyrophilins are present on lymphocytes, dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils, and acts as immune system regulators (stimulatory or inhibitory effect). In humans, BTN family includes 7 butyrophilin proteins (BTN1A1, BTN2A1, BTN2A2, BTN2A3, BTN3A1, BTN3A2, BTN3A3), 5 butyrophilin-like proteins (BTNL) (BTNL2, BTNL3, BTNL8, BTNL9, BTNL10) and the SKINT-like factor (SKINTL-selection and upkeep of intraepithelial T-cells), while in mice, 11 proteins of this family have been described: BTN1A1, BTN2A2, BTNL1, BTNL2, BTLN4, BTNL5, BTNL6, BTNL7, BTNL9, BTNL10 and SKINTL, which differ in humans and mice. Butyrophilins have been also demonstrated to play a role in various infections, e.g. tuberculosis or diseases that include sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, genetic metabolic diseases, ulcerative colitis, cancer and kidney disease. Noteworthy, some BTN/BTNLs are co-inhibitory whereas others are co-stimulatory in the regard of conventional T cell function regulation. For instance, human BTN3A1 (CD277), mouse BTNL2 and murine BTNL1 are considered as co-inhibitory molecules; BTNL8 and BTN3A2 are recognized as co-stimulatory molecules.

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