1. Signaling Pathways
  2. NF-κB
  3. NF-κB

NF-κB (核因子κB)

NF-κB (Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA. NF-κB is found in almost all animal cell types and is involved in cellular responses to stimuli such as stress, cytokines, free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, oxidized LDL, and bacterial or viral antigens. NF-κB plays a key role in regulating the immune response to infection. Incorrect regulation of NF-κB has been linked to cancer, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases, septic shock, viral infection, and improper immune development. NF-κB has also been implicated in processes of synaptic plasticity and memory. There are five proteins in the mammalian NF-κB family: NF-κB1, NF-κB2, RelA, RelB, c-Rel.

NF-κB 亚型特异性产品:

  • NF-κB

  • NF-κB1/p50

  • RelA/p65

  • RelB

目录号 产品名 作用方式 纯度
  • HY-18739
    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate Activator ≥98.0%
    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) 是一种佛波酯,是蛋白激酶 C (PKC)SphK 的激活剂。Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate 是 NF-κB 激活剂。Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate 可诱导 THP1 细胞分化。
  • HY-10227
    Bortezomib Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Bortezomib (PS-341) 是一种可逆性和选择性的蛋白酶体 (proteasome) 抑制剂,通过靶向苏氨酸残基有效抑制 20S 蛋白酶体 (Ki=0.6 nM)。Bortezomib 破坏细胞周期、诱导细胞凋亡以及抑制核因子 NF-κB。Bortezomib 是第一种蛋白酶体抑制剂,具有抗癌活性。
  • HY-18738
    Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate ammonium Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate ammonium (Ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) 是选择性和具有血脑屏障通透性的 NF-κB 抑制剂。
  • HY-13982
    JSH-23 Inhibitor 99.48%
    JSH-23 是 NF-κB 抑制剂,作用于脂多糖刺激的巨噬细胞 RAW 264.7,抑制 NF-κB 转录活性,IC50 为 7.1 μM。JSH-23 抑制 NF-κB p65 的核易位而不影响 IκBα 降解。
  • HY-N0822
    Shikonin Inhibitor 99.80%
    Shikonin 是中草药紫草的主要成分。Shikonin 是一种有效的 TMEM16A 氯化物通道 (chloride channel) 抑制剂,IC50 为 6.5 μM。Shikonin 是一种特异的丙酮酸激酶 M2 (PKM2) 抑制剂,还可以抑制 TNF-αNF-κB途径。Shikonin 通过抑制糖酵解降低外泌体 (exosome) 的分泌。Shikonin 抑制 AIM2炎性体活化。
  • HY-121508
    (E/Z)-IT-603 Inhibitor 98.08%
    (E/Z)-IT-603 是 E-IT-603 和 Z-IT-603 (IT-603) 的混合物。IT-603 是一种 c-Rel 抑制剂,其 IC50 值为3 μM。IT-603 具有抗癌活性。(E/Z)-IT-603 有望作为调节剂调节移植物抗宿主病和恶性病中的 T 细胞反应。
  • HY-N0375
    18α-Glycyrrhetinic acid Inhibitor 99.32%
    18α-Glycyrrhetinic acid,一种饮食衍生的化合物,是 NF-kB 的抑制剂和蛋白酶体 (proteasome) 的激活剂,在多细胞生物中起到促进长寿和抗聚集因子的作用。18α-Glycyrrhetinic acid 诱导细胞凋亡。
  • HY-N6588
    3,4,5-Tricaffeoylquinic acid Inhibitor
    3,4,5-Tricaffeoylquinic acid (3,4,5-triCQA) 通过抑制 Akt 和 NF-κB 途径抑制肿瘤坏死因子-α 刺激角质形成细胞中炎性介质的产生。3,4,5-Tricaffeoylquinic acid 诱导人神经干细胞 G0/G1 细胞周期阻滞、肌动蛋白骨架组织、染色质重塑、神经元分化和骨形态发生蛋白信号传导。3,4,5-Tricaffeoylquinic acid 在衰老相关疾病的研究中具有潜在的应用前景。
  • HY-32735
    Triptolide Inhibitor 99.79%
    Triptolide是从雷公藤根中提取的二萜类三环氧化物,具有免疫抑制,抗炎和抗增殖作用。 雷公藤内酯是 NF-κB 活化的抑制剂。
  • HY-19356
    Rocaglamide Inhibitor 99.34%
    Rocaglamide (Roc-A) 是从 Aglaia 中分离出来,可用于咳嗽,受伤,哮喘和炎症性皮肤病。Rocaglamide 是 T 细胞中一种有效的 NF-κB 活化抑制剂。Rocaglamide 是一种有效的选择性热休克因子 1 (HSF1) 活化抑制剂,IC50 约为 50 nM。Rocaglamide 还抑制翻译起始因子 eIF4A 的功能。Rocaglamide 还具有抗癌特性。
  • HY-N0176
    Dihydroartemisinin Inhibitor ≥99.0%
    Dihydroartemisinin是一种有效的抗疟疾 (anti-malaria) 药物。
  • HY-N0197
    Baicalin Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Baicalin 是一种类黄酮糖苷。Baicalin 降低 NF-κB 表达。
  • HY-14655
    Sulfasalazine Inhibitor 99.42%
    Sulfasalazine (NSC 667219) 常用于类风湿关节炎和溃疡性结肠炎的相关演技。Sulfasalazine 可抑制 NF-κB 的活性。Sulfasalazine 是 type 1 的铁死亡 (ferroptosis) 诱导剂。
  • HY-10257
    BAY 11-7085 Inhibitor 99.99%
    BAY 11-7085 (BAY 11-7083) 是 NF-κB 激活和 IκBα 磷酸化的抑制剂,稳定 IκBα 的 IC50 值为 10 μM。
  • HY-10529
    Betulinic acid Activator ≥98.0%
    Betulinic acid 是一种天然的五环三萜类化合物,为真核细胞拓扑异构酶 I (topoisomerase I) 的抑制剂,IC50 值为 5 μM,具有抗炎,抗疟疾,抗艾滋病和抗肿瘤等活性。Betulinic acid 也是一种新的 NF-kB 的激动剂。
  • HY-P0151
    SN50 Inhibitor 98.91%
    SN50是可渗透细胞的 NF-κB 易位抑制剂。
  • HY-N0141
    Parthenolide Inhibitor 99.88%
    Parthenolide是在药草短舌匹菊中发现的倍半萜内酯。 Parthenolide通过抑制 NF-κB 活化而表现出抗炎活性; 它还可抑制 HDAC1 蛋白而不影响其他I/II类HDAC。
  • HY-14645
    (-)-DHMEQ Inhibitor 98.83%
    (-)-DHMEQ (Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin) 是一种有效,选择性且不可逆的 NF-κB 抑制剂,与半胱氨酸残基共价结合。(-)-DHMEQ 抑制 NF-κB 的核易位,并显示抗炎和抗癌活性。
  • HY-N0274
    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester Inhibitor 98.19%
    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester 是一种 NF-κB 抑制剂。
  • HY-15027
    5-Aminosalicylic Acid Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    5-Aminosalicylic acid (Mesalamine) 是一种特异性的 PPARγ 激动剂,还抑制 p21-激活激酶1 (PAK1) 和 NF-κB

NF-κB transcription factors are critical regulators of immunity, stress responses, apoptosis and differentiation. In mammals, there are five members of the transcription factor NF-κB family: RELA (p65), RELB and c-REL, and the precursor proteins NF-κB1 (p105) and NF-κB2 (p100), which are processed into p50 and p52, respectively. NF-κB transcription factors bind as dimers to κB sites in promoters and enhancers of a variety of genes and induce or repress transcription. NF-κB activation occurs via two major signaling pathways: the canonical and the non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathways[1]

 

The canonical NF-κB pathway is triggered by signals from a large variety of immune receptors, such as TNFR, TLR, and IL-1R, which activate TAK1. TAK1 then activates IκB kinase (IKK) complex, composed of catalytic (IKKα and IKKβ) and regulatory (NEMO) subunits, via phosphorylation of IKKβ. Upon stimulation, the IKK complex, largely through IKKβ, phosphorylates members of the inhibitor of κB (IκB) family, such as IκBα and the IκB-like molecule p105, which sequester NF-κB members in the cytoplasm. IκBα associates with dimers of p50 and members of the REL family (RELA or c-REL), whereas p105 associates with p50 or REL (RELA or c-REL). Upon phosphorylation by IKK, IκBα and p105 are degradated in the proteasome, resulting in the nuclear translocation of canonical NF-κB family members, which bind to specific DNA elements, in the form of various dimeric complexes, including RELA-p50, c-REL-p50, and p50-p50. Atypical, IKK-independent pathways of NF-κB induction also provide mechanisms to integrate parallel signaling pathways to increase NF-κB activity, such as hypoxia, UV and genotoxic stress.

 

The non-canonical NF-κB pathway is induced by certain TNF superfamily members, such as CD40L, BAFF and lymphotoxin-β (LT-β), which stimulates the recruitment of TRAF2, TRAF3, cIAP1/2 to the receptor complex. Activated cIAP mediates K48 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of TRAF3, resulting in stabilization and accumulation of the NFκB-inducing kinase (NIK). NIK phosphorylates and activates IKKα, which in turn phosphorylates p100, triggering p100 processing, and leading to the generation of p52 and the nuclear translocation of p52 and RELB[2][3].

 

Reference:

[1]. Oeckinghaus A, et al. The NF-kappaB family of transcription factors and its regulation.Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2009 Oct;1(4):a000034. 
[2]. Taniguchi K, et al. NF-κB, inflammation, immunity and cancer: coming of age. Nat Rev Immunol. 2018 May;18(5):309-324.
[3]. Perkins ND,et al. Integrating cell-signalling pathways with NF-kappaB and IKK function. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Jan;8(1):49-62.

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