1. Signaling Pathways
  2. PI3K/Akt/mTOR
  3. mTOR

mTOR (哺乳动物雷帕霉素靶蛋白)

Mammalian target of Rapamycin

mTOR (mammalian target of Rapamycin) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the mTOR gene. mTOR is a serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, protein synthesis, and transcription. mTOR belongs to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase protein family. mTOR integrates the input from upstream pathways, including growth factors and amino acids. mTOR also senses cellular nutrient, oxygen, and energy levels. The mTOR pathway is dysregulated in human diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, depression, and certain cancers. Rapamycin inhibits mTOR by associating with its intracellular receptor FKBP12. The FKBP12-rapamycin complex binds directly to the FKBP12-Rapamycin Binding (FRB) domain of mTOR, inhibiting its activity.

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity Chemical Structure
  • HY-10219
    Rapamycin

    雷帕霉素; 西罗莫司

    Inhibitor 99.94%
    Rapamycin (Sirolimus) 是一种有效且特异性的 mTOR 抑制剂,作用于 HEK293 细胞,抑制 mTORIC50 为 0.1 nM。Rapamycin 与 FKBP12 结合且抑制 mTORC1。Rapamycin 还是一种自噬 (autophagy) 激活剂,免疫抑制剂。
    Rapamycin
  • HY-10218
    Everolimus

    依维莫司

    Inhibitor 99.68%
    Everolimus (RAD001) 是一种雷帕霉素 (Rapamycin; HY-10219) 的衍生物,也是一种有效的,选择性的和口服活性的 mTOR1 抑制剂。Everolimus 与 FKBP-12 结合可产生免疫抑制复合物。Everolimus 抑制肿瘤细胞增殖并诱导细胞凋亡 (apoptosis) 和自噬 (autophagy)。Everolimus 具有有效的免疫抑制和抗癌活性。
    Everolimus
  • HY-B0795
    MHY1485 Activator 99.86%
    MHY1485 是一种有效的细胞渗透性 mTOR 激活剂,靶向 mTOR 的 ATP 结构域。MHY 1485 通过抑制自噬体和溶酶体之间的融合来抑制自噬 (autophagy)。
    MHY1485
  • HY-13003
    Torin 1 Inhibitor 99.08%
    Torin 1 是一种有效的 mTOR 抑制剂,IC50 为 3 nM。Torin 1 抑制 mTORC1/2 复合物,IC50 值在 2 和 10 nM 之间。Torin 1 有效诱导自噬 (autophagy)。
    Torin 1
  • HY-10422
    AZD-8055 Inhibitor 99.60%
    AZD-8055 是一种有效、选择性、具有口服活性和 ATP 竞争性的 mTOR 抑制剂,IC50 为 0.8 nM。AZD-8055 抑制 mTORC1mTORC2
    AZD-8055
  • HY-19962
    Paxalisib Inhibitor 99.74%
    Paxalisib (GDC-0084) 是一种能透过血脑屏障的 PI3KmTOR 抑制剂,抑制 PI3KαPI3KβPI3KδPI3KγmTORKi 值分别为 2 nM,46 nM,3 nM,10 nM 和 70 nM。
    Paxalisib
  • HY-W592871
    10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid

    10-羟基-2-癸烯酸

    ≥98.0%
    10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) 是蜜蜂生产的蜂王浆的主要脂质成分。10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid 对哺乳动物具有多种有益健康的作用,例如抗肿瘤活性、抗炎活性和抗血管生成活性。10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid 还可以延长线虫的寿命。
    10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid
  • HY-157169
    IBL-302 Inhibitor
    IBL-302 (AMU302) 是口服有效的 PIMPI3K/AKT/mTOR 双信号抑制剂,具有抗乳腺癌和成神经细胞瘤活性。IBL-302 在裸鼠异种移植模型中表现出体内效力,抑制曲妥珠单抗 (HY-P9907) 的耐药难题。IBL-302 还能增强常见细胞毒性化疗药物顺铂 (HY-17394)、阿霉素 (HY-15142A) 和依托泊苷 (HY-13629) 的效果。
    IBL-302
  • HY-13328
    Sapanisertib

    沙帕色替

    Inhibitor 99.66%
    Sapanisertib (INK-128; MLN0128; TAK-228) 是一种口服有效的 ATP依赖性的 mTOR1/2 抑制剂,抑制 mTOR 激酶的IC50 值为 1 nM。
    Sapanisertib
  • HY-50673
    Dactolisib Inhibitor 99.94%
    Dactolisib (BEZ235) 是一种具有口服活性的、双重的 pan-class I PI3KmTOR 抑制剂,作用于 p110α/γ/δ/βmTORIC50 分别为 4 nM/5 nM/7 nM/75 nM 和 20.7 nM。Dactolisib (BEZ235) 抑制 mTORC1mTORC2
    Dactolisib
  • HY-N0109
    Salidroside

    红景天苷

    Activator 99.79%
    Salidroside (Rhodioloside) 是一种脯氨酰内肽酶 (prolyl endopeptidase) 抑制剂。Salidroside 可通过激活 mTOR 信号缓解肿瘤恶病质小鼠模型中的恶病质症状。Salidroside 还能通过增强 PINK1/Parkin 介导的线粒体自噬来保护多巴胺能神经元。
    Salidroside
  • HY-13002
    Torin 2 Inhibitor 99.98%
    Torin 2 是一种 mTOR 抑制剂,抑制细胞内 mTOR 活性,EC50 为 0.25 nM,比作用于 PI3K (EC50: 200 nM) 选择性高 800 倍。体外酶实验中,Torin 2 还抑制 DNA-PKIC50 为 0.5 nM。Torin 2 抑制 mTORC1mTORC2
    Torin 2
  • HY-50910
    Temsirolimus

    替西罗莫司

    Inhibitor 99.56%
    Temsirolimus 是 mTOR 抑制剂,IC50 值为 1.76 μM。Temsirolimus 能激活自噬 (autophagy),在动物模型中防止心脏功能恶化。
    Temsirolimus
  • HY-N0486
    L-Leucine

    L-亮氨酸

    Activator 99.79%
    L-Leucine 是一种必需的支链氨基酸 (BCAA),可激活 mTOR 信号通路。
    L-Leucine
  • HY-10297
    Omipalisib Inhibitor 99.93%
    Omipalisib (GSK2126458) 是一种口服有效的,高选择性的 PI3K 抑制剂,抑制 p110α/β/δ/γ,mTORC1/2 的活性,Ki 值分别为 0.019 nM/0.13 nM/0.024 nM/0.06 nM 和 0.18 nM/0.3 nM。Omipalisib 具有抗癌活性。
    Omipalisib
  • HY-122022
    JR-AB2-011 Inhibitor 99.16%
    JR-AB2-011 是一种选择性 mTORC2 抑制剂,IC50 值为 0.36 μM。JR-AB2-011 通过阻断 Rictor-mTOR 联合体 (Ki: 0.19 μM) 抑制 mTORC2 活性。
    JR-AB2-011
  • HY-U00434
    3BDO Activator 99.91%
    3BDO 是一种新型 mTOR 激活剂,也能抑制自噬。
    3BDO
  • HY-139609
    Camonsertib Inhibitor 99.75%
    Camonsertib (RP-3500) 是一种口服有效的,选择性 ATR 激酶抑制剂 (ATRi),在生化试验中的 IC50 为 1.00 nM。Camonsertib 对 ATR 的选择性是 mTOR 的 30 倍 (IC50=120 nM),是 ATM、DNA-PK 和 PI3Kα 激酶的 > 2,000 倍。Camonsertib 具有有效的抗肿瘤活性。
    Camonsertib
  • HY-111373
    RapaLink-1 Inhibitor 99.27%
    RapaLink-1 是第三代 mTOR 抑制剂,通过 linker 将雷帕霉素 (Rapamycin, HY-10219) 与二代 mTOR 抑制剂 MLN0128 (HY-13328) 结合。RapaLink-1 比雷帕霉素或 mTOR 抑制剂 (TORKi) 更有效,能有效地阻断癌源性的,激活的 mTOR 突变体。RapaLink-1 可以穿过血脑屏障。RapaLink-1 与 FKBP12 的结合导致持久抑制 mTORC1。RapaLink-1 通过促进自噬在抗磷脂综合征中发挥抗血栓作用。具有抗癌活性。
    RapaLink-1
  • HY-132168
    RMC-5552 Inhibitor 98.10%
    RMC-5552 是一种有效的选择性 mTORC1 抑制剂。RMC-5552 抑制 mTORC1 pS6Kp4EBP1 的磷酸化,IC50 分别为 0.14 nM 和 0.48 nM。RMC-5552 表现出低得多的 pAKT 抑制作用 (IC50 为 19 nM),导致 mTORC1/mTORC2 选择性接近 40 倍。RMC-5552 具有抗癌活性。
    RMC-5552
目录号 产品名 / 同用名 应用 反应物种

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway integrates both intracellular and extracellular signals and serves as a central regulator of cell metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival[1]. mTOR is the catalytic subunit of two distinct complexes called mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 comprises DEPTOR, PRAS40, RAPTOR, mLST8, mTOR, whereas mTORC2 comprises DEPTOR, mLST8, PROTOR, RICTOR, mSIN1, mTOR[2]. Rapamycin binds to FKBP12 and inhibits mTORC1 by disrupting the interaction between mTOR and RAPTOR. mTORC1 negatively regulates autophagy through multiple inputs, including inhibitory phosphorylation of ULK1 and TFEB. mTORC1 promotes protein synthesis through activation of the translation initiation promoter S6K and through inhibition of the inhibitory mRNA cap binding 4E-BP1, and regulates glycolysis through HIF-1α. It promotes de novo lipid synthesis through the SREBP transcription factors. mTORC2 inhibits FOXO1,3 through SGK and Akt, which can lead to increased longevity. The complex also regulates actin cytoskeleton assembly through PKC and Rho kinase[3]

 

Growth factors: Growth factors can signal to mTORC1 through both PI3K-Akt and Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK axis. For example, ERK and RSK phosphorylate TSC2, and inhibit it.

 

Insulin Receptor: The activated insulin receptor recruits intracellular adaptor protein IRS1. Phosphorylation of these proteins on tyrosine residues by the insulin receptor initiates the recruitment and activation of PI3K. PIP3 acts as a second messenger which promotes the phosphorylation of Akt and triggers the Akt-dependent multisite phosphorylation of TSC2. TSC is a heterotrimeric complex comprised of TSC1, TSC2, and TBC1D7, and functions as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for the small GTPase Rheb, which directly binds and activates mTORC1. mTORC2 primarily functions as an effector of insulin/PI3K signaling. 

 

Wnt: The Wnt pathway activates mTORC1. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) acts as a negative regulator of mTORC1 by phosphorylating TSC2. mTORC2 is activated by Wnt in a manner dependent on the small GTPase RAC1[4].

 

Amino acids: mTORC1 senses both lysosomal and cytosolic amino acids through distinct mechanisms. Amino acids induce the movement of mTORC1 to lysosomal membranes, where the Rag proteins reside. A complex named Ragulator, interact with the Rag GTPases, recruits them to lysosomes through a mechanism dependent on the lysosomal v-ATPase, and is essential for mTORC1 activation. In turn, lysosomal recruitment enables mTORC1 to interact with GTP-bound RHEB, the end point of growth factor. Cytosolic leucine and arginine signal to mTORC1 through a distinct pathway comprised of the GATOR1 and GATOR2 complexes.    

 

Stresses: mTORC1 responds to intracellular and environmental stresses that are incompatible with growth such as low ATP levels, hypoxia, or DNA damage. A reduction in cellular energy charge, for example during glucose deprivation, activates the stress responsive metabolic regulator AMPK, which inhibits mTORC1 both indirectly, through phosphorylation and activation of TSC2, as well as directly through the phosphorylation of RAPTOR. Sestrin1/2 are two transcriptional targets of p53 that are implicated in the DNA damage response, and they potently activate AMPK, thus mediating the p53-dependent suppression of mTOR activity upon DNA damage. During hypoxia, mitochondrial respiration is impaired, leading to low ATP levels and activation of AMPK. Hypoxia also affects mTORC1 in AMPK-independent ways by inducing the expression of REDD1, the protein products of which then suppress mTORC1 by promoting the assembly of TSC1-TSC2[2].

 

Reference:

[1]. Laplante M, et al.mTOR signaling at a glance.J Cell Sci. 2009 Oct 15;122(Pt 20):3589-94. 
[2]. Zoncu R, et al. mTOR: from growth signal integration to cancer, diabetes and ageing.Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2011 Jan;12(1):21-35. 
[3]. Johnson SC, et al. mTOR is a key modulator of ageing and age-related disease.Nature. 2013 Jan 17;493(7432):338-45.
[4]. Shimobayashi M, et al. Making new contacts: the mTOR network in metabolism and signalling crosstalk.Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2014 Mar;15(3):155-62.

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