1. Cancer


Cancer therapy has always been the focus of biomedical research and practice across the world. Cancer is a disease in which mutations or genomic changes enable cells to achieve a wide range of abilities in order to escape apoptosis and growth inhibition signals, resulting in unlimited cells growth and spread to other parts of the body. It is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal cells and abnormal recognition of the immune system. There are different treatments for cancer, depending on its progress, the type of cancer, the types of treatments available, and the target of treatment. Surgery, chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) are the three main methods to treat cancer in the traditional way. However, these treatments are potentially toxic and may cause side effects and multidrug resistance. Although cancer therapy can prolong the life of patients, yet a large number of patients still die because of cancer recurrence, hence the research on cancer recurrence and metastasis has always been the focus in the field of clinical medicine. According to different nature of therapies, the types of cancer treatment can be divided into the following categories.


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[3] Shen S, et al. Cell. 2020; 183(4):860-874