1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Apoptosis
  3. TNF Receptor

TNF Receptor

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major mediator of apoptosis as well as inflammation and immunity, and it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide spectrum of human diseases, including sepsis, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases.

TNF-α is a 17-kDa protein consisting of 157 amino acids that is a homotrimer in solution. In humans, the gene is mapped to chromosome 6. Its bioactivity is mainly regulated by soluble TNF-α–binding receptors. TNF-α is mainly produced by activated macrophages, T lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Lower expression is known for a variety of other cells, including fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and tumor cells. In cells, TNF-α is synthesized as pro-TNF (26 kDa), which is membrane-bound and is released upon cleavage of its pro domain by TNF-converting enzyme (TACE).

Many of the TNF-induced cellular responses are mediated by either one of the two TNF receptors, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, both of which belong to the TNF receptor super-family. In response to TNF treatment, the transcription factor NF-κB and MAP kinases, including ERK, p38 and JNK, are activated in most types of cells and, in some cases, apoptosis or necrosis could also be induced. However, induction of apoptosis or necrosis is mainly achieved through TNFR1, which is also known as a death receptor. Activation of the NF-κB and MAPKs plays an important role in the induction of many cytokines and immune-regulatory proteins and is pivotal for many inflammatory responses.

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-11109
    Resatorvid Inhibitor 99.95%
    Resatorvid (TAK-242) 是一种选择性的 TLR4 信号传导抑制剂。Resatorvid 抑制 NOTNF-RIL-6 的产生,其 IC50 值分别为 1.8 nM,1.9 nM,1.3 nM。Resatorvid 下调 TLR4 下游信号分子 MyD88 和 TRIF 的表达。Resatorvid 抑制自噬 (autophagy),并在各种炎症性疾病中起关键作用。
  • HY-N0822
    Shikonin Inhibitor 99.80%
    Shikonin 是中草药紫草的主要成分。Shikonin 是一种有效的 TMEM16A 氯化物通道 (chloride channel) 抑制剂,IC50 为 6.5 μM。Shikonin 是一种特异的丙酮酸激酶 M2 (PKM2) 抑制剂,还可以抑制 TNF-αNF-κB途径。
  • HY-15615A
    TIC10 Agonist 99.80%
    TIC10 是一种有效,有口服活性,稳定的肿瘤坏死因子相关的凋亡诱导配体 TRAIL 诱导剂,其通过抑制 AktERK 起作用,从而激活 Foxo3a 并显着诱导细胞表面 TRAIL。TIC10 可透过血脑屏障。
  • HY-12085
    Apremilast Inhibitor 99.95%
    Apremilast (CC-10004) 是一种口服有效的磷酸二酯酶 4 (PDE4) 抑制剂,IC50 为 74 nM。Apremilast 抑制脂多糖 (LPS) 释放 TNF-α,IC50 为 104 nM。
  • HY-N0182
    Fisetin Inhibitor 98.02%
    Fisetin是一种在许多水果和蔬菜中发现的天然黄酮醇,具有多种益处,如抗氧化,抗癌,神经保护作用。
  • HY-108847
    Etanercept Inhibitor
    Etanercept 是一种肿瘤坏死因子 TNF抑制剂,可用于类风湿性关节炎,强直性脊柱炎,银屑病关节炎和斑块状银屑病的研究。
  • HY-118250
    GSK2245035 Activator
    GSK2245035 是一种高效的,选择性的鼻内 Toll-Like 受体 7 (TLR7) 激动剂,具有优先刺激 1 型干扰素 (IFN) 的特性。GSK2245035 对 IFNα 和TNFα 的 pEC50 分别为 9.3 和 6.5。GSK2245035 有效抑制人外周血细胞培养物中过敏原诱导的 Th2 细胞因子产生。GSK2245035 有用于哮喘的潜力。
  • HY-N0633
    Muscone Inhibitor >98.0%
    Muscone 是中药麝香的主要活性单体。Muscone 抑制 NF-κBNLRP3 炎性小体的活化。Muscone 显着降低炎性细胞因子 (IL-1βTNF-αIL-6) 水平,并最终改善心脏功能和存活率。
  • HY-P0224
    N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe Inhibitor 99.46%
    N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP; N-Formyl-MLF) 是一种趋化肽和N-甲酰基肽受体 (FPR) 的特异性配体。报道显示N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Ph 可抑制 TNF-alpha 的分泌。
  • HY-P9908
    Adalimumab Inhibitor 98.12%
    Adalimumab 是一种人源的单克隆 IgG1 抗体,靶向肿瘤坏死因子α (TNF-α)。
  • HY-13812
    QNZ Inhibitor 98.46%
    QNZ (EVP4593) 强抑制 NF-κB 转录激活和 TNF-α 产生,IC50 分别为 11 和 7 nM。QNZ (EVP4593) 是一种保护神经的钙池操纵的钙通道 (SOC) 抑制剂。
  • HY-110203
    R-7050 Antagonist 98.83%
    R-7050 (TNF-α Antagonist III) 是一种肿瘤坏死因子受体 (TNFR) 拮抗剂,对 TNFα 具有更高选择性。
  • HY-120934
    C25-140 Inhibitor 99.84%
    C25-140 是一种一流的,具有一定选择性的 TRAF6-Ubc13 相互作用的抑制剂,直接与 TRAF6 结合,阻断 TRAF6 和 Ubc13 的相互作用,从而降低 TRAF6 活性,降低 NF-κB 的活性,并对抗自身免疫。
  • HY-N0604
    Ginsenoside Rh1 Inhibitor >98.0%
    Ginsenoside Rh1 (Prosapogenin A2; Sanchinoside B2; Sanchinoside Rh1) 是从 Panax Ginseng 根部分离的。 Ginsenoside Rh1 抑制 PPAR-γTNF-αIL-6IL-1β 的表达。
  • HY-N0029
    Forsythoside B 99.99%
    Forsythoside B是传统中药植物独一味的叶子中分离的苯乙醇苷。独一味可用于治疗炎症疾病和促进血液循环。Forsythoside B 可抑制 TNF-alphaIL-6IκB, 调节 NF-κB
  • HY-111255
    SPD304 Inhibitor >99.0%
    SPD304 是肿瘤坏死因子 α (TNF-α) 的选择性抑制剂,能够促进肿瘤坏死因子三聚体的分离,从而阻断其与受体间的相互作用。SPD304 体外抑制肿瘤坏死因子 α 和受体 1 间结合的 IC50 值为 22 µM。
  • HY-100735
    C 87 Inhibitor 98.07%
    C87是一种新型小分子TNFα抑制剂; 高效抑制TNFα诱导的细胞毒性,IC50值为8.73 μM。
  • HY-N0722
    Neochlorogenic acid Inhibitor 99.46%
    Neochlorogenic acid 是在干果和其他植物中发现的一种天然多酚化合物。Neochlorogenic acid 抑制 TNF-αIL-1β 产生。 Neochlorogenic acid 抑制 iNOSCOX-2 蛋白表达。Neochlorogenic acid 还抑制磷酸化的 NF-κB p65p38 MAPK 活化。
  • HY-107390A
    AX-024 hydrochloride Inhibitor 99.29%
    AX-024 hydrochloride 是一种口服可利用的,一流的 TCR-Nck 相互作用抑制剂,可选择性地抑制 TCR 触发的 T 细胞活化,IC50 值为 1 nM。AX-024 hydrochloride 通过靶向 SH3 结构域调节细胞信号传导。AX-024 hydrochloride 具有低毒、高效、高选择性的特点。AX-024 hydrochloride 有效抑制白细胞介素-6 (IL-6),肿瘤坏死因子-α (TNFα),干扰素-γ (IFN-γ),IL-10IL-17A 的产生。
  • HY-107390
    AX-024 Inhibitor >98.0%
    AX-024 是一种口服可利用的,一流的 TCR-Nck 相互作用抑制剂,可选择性地抑制 TCR 触发的 T 细胞活化,IC50 值为 1 nM。AX-024 通过靶向 SH3 结构域调节细胞信号传导。AX-024 具有低毒、高效、高选择性的特点。AX-024 有效抑制白细胞介素-6 (IL-6),肿瘤坏死因子-α (TNFα),干扰素-γ (IFN-γ),IL-10IL-17A 的产生。

Following the binding of TNF to TNF receptors, TNFR1 binds to TRADD, which recruits RIPK1, TRAF2/5 and cIAP1/2 to form TNFR1 signaling complex I; TNFR2 binds to TRAF1/2 directly to recruit cIAP1/2. Both cIAP1 and cIAP2 are E3 ubiquitin ligases that add K63 linked polyubiquitin chains to RIPK1 and other components of the signaling complex. The ubiquitin ligase activity of the cIAPs is needed to recruit the LUBAC, which adds M1 linked linear polyubiquitin chains to RIPK1. K63 polyubiquitylated RIPK1 recruits TAB2, TAB3 and TAK1, which activate signaling mediated by JNK and p38, as well as the IκB kinase complex. The IKK complex then activates NF-κB signaling, which leads to the transcription of anti-apoptotic factors-such as FLIP and Bcl-XL-that promote cell survival. 

 

The formation of TNFR1 complex IIa and complex IIb depends on non-ubiquitylated RIPK1. For the formation of complex IIa, ubiquitylated RIPK1 in complex I is deubiquitylated by CYLD. This deubiquitylated RIPK1 dissociates from the membrane-bound complex and moves into the cytosol, where it interacts with TRADD, FADD, Pro-caspase 8 and FLIPL to form complex IIa. By contrast, complex IIb is formed when the RIPK1 in complex I is not ubiquitylated owing to conditions that have resulted in the depletion of cIAPs, which normally ubiquitylate RIPK1. This non-ubiquitylated RIPK1 dissociates from complex I, moves into the cytosol, and assembles with FADD, Pro-caspase 8, FLIPL and RIPK3 (but not TRADD) to form complex IIb. For either complex IIa or complex IIb to prevent necroptosis, both RIPK1 and RIPK3 must be inactivated by the cleavage activity of the Pro-caspase 8-FLIPL heterodimer or fully activated caspase 8. The Pro-caspase 8 homodimer generates active Caspase 8, which is released from complex IIa and complex IIb. This active Caspase 8 then carries out cleavage reactions to activate downstream executioner caspases and thus induce classical apoptosis. 

 

Formation of the complex IIc (necrosome) is initiated either by RIPK1 deubiquitylation mediated by CYLD or by RIPK1 non-ubiquitylation due to depletion of cIAPs, similar to complex IIa and complex IIb formation. RIPK1 recruits numerous RIPK3 molecules. They come together to form amyloid microfilaments called necrosomes. Activated RIPK3 phosphorylates and recruits MLKL, eventually leading to the formation of a supramolecular protein complex at the plasma membrane and necroptosis [1][2].

 

Reference:
[1]. Brenner D, et al. Regulation of tumour necrosis factor signalling: live or let die.Nat Rev Immunol. 2015 Jun;15(6):362-74. 
[2]. Conrad M, et al. Regulated necrosis: disease relevance and therapeutic opportunities.Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016 May;15(5):348-66. 
 

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