1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Apoptosis
  3. Caspase

Caspase

Caspase is a family of cysteine proteases that play essential roles in apoptosis (programmed cell death), necrosis, and inflammation. There are two types of apoptotic caspases: initiator (apical) caspases and effector (executioner) caspases. Initiator caspases (e.g., CASP2, CASP8, CASP9, and CASP10) cleave inactive pro-forms of effector caspases, thereby activating them. Effector caspases (e.g., CASP3, CASP6, CASP7) in turn cleave other protein substrates within the cell, to trigger the apoptotic process. The initiation of this cascade reaction is regulated by caspase inhibitors. CASP4 and CASP5, which are overexpressed in some cases of vitiligo and associated autoimmune diseases caused by NALP1 variants, are not currently classified as initiator or effector in MeSH, because they are inflammatory enzymes that, in concert with CASP1, are involved in T-cell maturation.

Caspase Isoform Specific Products:

  • Caspase 1

  • Caspase 2

  • Caspase 3

  • Caspase 4

  • Caspase 5

  • Caspase 6

  • Caspase 7

  • Caspase 8

  • Caspase 9

  • Caspase 10

  • Caspase 12

  • Caspase

  • Caspase 11

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-16658
    Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK Inhibitor 98.20%
    Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK 是一种可渗透细胞的不可逆 pan-caspase 抑制剂。
  • HY-13205
    Belnacasan Inhibitor 99.99%
    Belnacasan (VX-765) 是 VRT-043198 的口服生物活性前药,VRT-043198 是有效选择性的 IL 转换酶 (ICE)/caspase-1 抑制剂,对 caspase-1 的 Ki 值为 0.8 nM,对 caspase-4 的 Ki 值小于 0.6 nM。Belnacasan (VX-765) 作用于外周血单核细胞,可抑制 LPS 诱导的 IL-1β 和 IL-18 释放,IC50 约为 0.7 μM。
  • HY-12305
    Q-VD-OPh Inhibitor 99.26%
    Q-VD-OPh 是一种不可逆的泛胱天蛋白酶 (caspase) 抑制剂,具有高效的抗凋亡能力。抑制胱天蛋白酶 7 的 IC50 值别为 48 nM,抑制胱天蛋白酶 1,3,8,9,10,12 的 IC50 值在 25-400 nM 之间。Q-VD-OPha 能透过血脑屏障。
  • HY-12466
    Z-DEVD-FMK Inhibitor >98.0%
    Z-DEVD-FMK 是一种特异性的不可逆的 caspase-3 抑制剂,IC50 为 18 μM。
  • HY-101297
    Z-IETD-FMK Inhibitor >98.0%
    Z-IETD-FMK是选择性和细胞可渗透的胱天蛋白酶 (caspase 8) 抑制剂。
  • HY-19696B
    Tauroursodeoxycholate dihydrate Inhibitor
    Tauroursodeoxycholate dihydrate (TUDCA dihydrate; UR 906 dihydrate; Taurolite dihydrate) 是一种内质网应激抑制剂。Tauroursodeoxycholate 显著降低凋亡分子如 caspase-3caspase-12 表达。Tauroursodeoxycholate 也抑制 ERK
  • HY-N6979
    Crustecdysone Inhibitor 99.64%
    Crustecdysone (20-Hydroxyecdysone) 是一种天然存在的蜕皮激素,源于露水草 Cyanotis arachnoides C.B.Clarke, 可控制节肢动物的蜕皮和变态,它通过 20E 核受体复合物 EcR-USP 抑制半胱天冬酶 (Caspase) 活性并诱导自噬 (autophagy)。Crustecdysone 在心血管系统中具有调节或保护作用。
  • HY-107738
    Guggulsterone Activator 99.50%
    Guggulsterone 是一种植物甾醇,来自 Commiphora wightii 树的树胶脂。 Guggulsterone 通过下调抗细胞凋亡 (apoptosis) 基因产物 (IAP1,xIAP,Bfl-1/A1,Bcl-2,cFLIP,survivin),调节细胞周期蛋白 (cyclin D1,c-Myc),激活 caspases,JNK,抑制 Akt,抑制多种肿瘤细胞的生长并诱导细胞凋亡。Guggulsterone 通过调节几种转录因子介导基因表达,包括 NF-κB,STAT3,C /EBPα,雄激素受体 (androgen receptor) 和糖皮质激素受体(glucocorticoid receptors)。Guggulsterone,一种法尼醇 X 受体 (FXR) 拮抗剂,可降低 CDCA 诱导的 FXR 活化,Z- 和 E-Guggulsterone 的 IC50 分别为 17 和 15 μM。
  • HY-19696A
    Tauroursodeoxycholate Sodium Inhibitor
    Tauroursodeoxycholate Sodium 是一种内质网应激抑制剂。Tauroursodeoxycholate 显著降低凋亡分子如 caspase-3caspase-12 表达。Tauroursodeoxycholate 也抑制 ERK
  • HY-P1001
    Ac-DEVD-CHO Inhibitor 98.84%
    Ac-DEVD-CHO 是一种特异性 Caspase-3 抑制剂,Ki 值为 230 pM。
  • HY-10396
    Emricasan Inhibitor 99.88%
    Emricasan (PF 03491390)是不可逆的 pan-caspase 抑制剂。
  • HY-N2027
    Taurochenodeoxycholic acid Activator 99.80%
    Taurochenodeoxycholic acid是动物胆汁酸的主要生物活性物质之一。
  • HY-13523
    PAC-1 Activator
    PAC-1 是一种 procaspase-3 激活剂,诱导癌细胞凋亡,EC50 为 2.08 μM。
  • HY-N0605
    Ginsenoside Rh2 Activator >98.0%
    Ginsenoside Rh2 是从 Ginseng 根中分离出来的。Ginsenoside Rh2 诱导 caspase-8caspase-9 活化。Ginsenoside Rh2 以多途径方式诱导癌细胞凋亡。
  • HY-B1193
    Terfenadine Activator 98.26%
    Terfenadine ((±)-Terfenadine) 是一种有效的 hERG 开放通道抑制剂, IC50为 204 nM。Terfenadine 也是一种 H1 组胺受体 (histamine receptor) 拮抗剂,通过调节 Ca2+ 稳态在黑素瘤细胞中起到有效的细胞凋亡诱导作用。 Terfenadine 诱导 ROS 依赖性细胞凋亡,同时激活 Caspase-4,-2,-9,诱导 p73,Noxa
  • HY-13229
    BOC-D-FMK Inhibitor
    Boc-D-FMK是可渗透细胞,不可逆的,泛半胱天冬酶抑制剂。抑制TNF-α诱导的细胞凋亡的IC50值为39 µM。
  • HY-103667
    2-HBA Activator 98.83%
    2-HBA 是一个有效的 NAD(P)H: 醌受体氧化还原酶 1 (NQO1) 诱导剂,也可以激活半胱天冬酶-3 (caspase-3) 和半胱天冬酶-10 (caspase-10)。
  • HY-10397
    EP1013 Inhibitor
    EP1013 是一种广谱的 caspase 选择性抑制剂,可用于 1 型糖尿病研究。
  • HY-N0905
    Ginsenoside Rh4 Activator 99.28%
    Ginsenoside Rh4 是从 Panax notoginseng 中获得的稀有皂苷。Ginsenoside Rh4 激活 Baxcaspase 3caspase 8caspase 9。Ginsenoside Rh4 还诱导自噬。
  • HY-W041489
    Chelidonic acid Inhibitor
    Chelidonic acid 是从 Chelidonium majus L. 中分到的酸类物质,为一种温和镇痛剂、抗菌剂和中枢神经系统镇静剂。Chelidonic acid 具有抗炎作用,可能通过抑制 NF-κBcaspase-1 来降低 IL-6 的产生。Chelidonic acid 为 glutamate decarboxylase 抑制剂,Ki 值为 1.2 μM。

Upon binding to their cognate ligand, death receptors such as Fas and TRAILR can activate initiator Caspases (Pro-caspase 8 and Pro-caspase 10) through dimerization mediated by adaptor proteins such as FADD and TRADD. Active Caspase 8 and Caspase 10 then cleave and activate the effector Caspase 3, 6 and 7, leading to apoptosis. ROS/DNA damage and ER stress trigger Caspase 2 activation. Active Caspase 2 cleaves and activates Caspase 3 and initiates apoptosis directly. Caspase 2, 8 and 10 can also cleave Bid, stimulate mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) and initiate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Following MOMP, mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins such as Smac and Cytochrome C are released into the cytosol. Cytochrome C interacts with Apaf-1, triggering apoptosome assembly, which activates Caspase 9. Active Caspase 9, in turn, activates Caspase 3, 6 and 7, leading to apoptosis. Mitochondrial release of Smac facilitates apoptosis by blocking the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins. 

 

Following the binding of TNF to TNFR1, TNFR1 binds to TRADD, which recruits RIPK1, TRAF2/5 and cIAP1/2 to form TNFR1 signaling complex I. Formation of the complex IIa and complex IIb is initiated either by RIPK1 deubiquitylation mediated by CYLD or by RIPK1 non-ubiquitylation due to depletion of cIAPs. The Pro-caspase 8 homodimer in complex IIa and complex IIb generates active Caspase 8. This active Caspase 8 in the cytosol then carries out cleavage reactions to activate downstream executioner caspases and thus induce classical apoptosis[1][2]

 

Reference:

[1]. Thomas C, et al. Caspases in retinal ganglion cell death and axon regeneration. Cell Death Discovery volume 3, Article number: 17032 (2017).
[2]. Brenner D, et al. Regulation of tumour necrosis factor signalling: live or let die. Nat Rev Immunol. 2015 Jun;15(6):362-74.

Isoform Specific Products

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