1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Apoptosis
  3. Caspase

Caspase (半胱天冬酶蛋白)

Caspase is a family of cysteine proteases that play essential roles in apoptosis (programmed cell death), necrosis, and inflammation. There are two types of apoptotic caspases: initiator (apical) caspases and effector (executioner) caspases. Initiator caspases (e.g., CASP2, CASP8, CASP9, and CASP10) cleave inactive pro-forms of effector caspases, thereby activating them. Effector caspases (e.g., CASP3, CASP6, CASP7) in turn cleave other protein substrates within the cell, to trigger the apoptotic process. The initiation of this cascade reaction is regulated by caspase inhibitors. CASP4 and CASP5, which are overexpressed in some cases of vitiligo and associated autoimmune diseases caused by NALP1 variants, are not currently classified as initiator or effector in MeSH, because they are inflammatory enzymes that, in concert with CASP1, are involved in T-cell maturation.

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity Chemical Structure
  • HY-16658B
    Z-VAD-FMK Inhibitor 99.78%
    Z-VAD-FMK (Z-VAD(OH)-FMK) 是一种 pan caspase 抑制剂。Z-VAD-FMK 不抑制泛素 C 末端水解酶 L1 (UCHL1) 活性,即使浓度高达 440 μM。
    Z-VAD-FMK
  • HY-12305
    Q-VD-OPh Inhibitor 99.78%
    Q-VD-OPh 是一种不可逆的泛胱天蛋白酶 (caspase) 抑制剂,具有高效的抗凋亡能力。抑制胱天蛋白酶 7 的 IC50 值别为 48 nM,抑制胱天蛋白酶 1,3,8,9,10,12 的 IC50 值在 25-400 nM 之间。Q-VD-OPh 可抑制 HIV 感染。Q-VD-OPh 能透过血脑屏障。
    Q-VD-OPh
  • HY-16658
    Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK Inhibitor 98.20%
    Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK (Z-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-FMK) 是一种不可逆的 pan-caspase 抑制剂。Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK 是泛素 C 末端水解酶 L1 (UCHL1) 抑制剂。Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK 通过靶向 UCHL1 活性位点对 UCHL1 进行不可逆地修饰。
    Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK
  • HY-13205
    Belnacasan Inhibitor 99.99%
    Belnacasan (VX-765) 是 VRT-043198 的口服生物活性前体,VRT-043198 是有效选择性的 IL 转换酶 (ICE)/caspase-1 抑制剂,对 caspase-1Ki 值为 0.8 nM,对 caspase-4 的 Ki 值小于 0.6 nM。Belnacasan (VX-765) 作用于外周血单核细胞,可抑制 LPS 诱导的 IL-1β 和 IL-18 释放,IC50 约为 0.7 μM。
    Belnacasan
  • HY-13755
    Sulforaphane

    萝卜硫素

    Inhibitor 99.75%
    Sulforaphane 是一种具有口服活性的 Keap1/Nrf2/ARE 诱导剂。Sulforaphane 能促进肿瘤抑制蛋白的转录,并有效地抑制 HDACs 的活性。Sulforaphane 通过激活 Keap1/Nrf2/ARE 途径,以及进一步诱导 HO-1 的表达保护心脏。Sulforaphan 通过 AMPK 依赖性信号传导抑制高糖诱导的胰腺癌。Sulforaphane 具有抗癌和抗炎活性。
    Sulforaphane
  • HY-157800
    Trilexium Activator 99.70%
    Trilexium (TRX-E-009-1) 是第三代苯并吡喃,结构与 TRX-E-002-1 (HY-114250) 相关。Trilexium 增加 p21 蛋白表达并诱导细胞凋亡 (apoptosis)。Trilexium 解聚微管。Trilexium 显示出广泛的抗癌活性。
    Trilexium
  • HY-116794
    SF5 Inhibitor 99.83%
    SF5 (2,2-Diphenylethyl isothiocyanate) 是一种萝卜硫素类似物。SF5 通过 JNK-p53-caspase 通路抑制细胞凋亡 (apoptosis)。SF5 可作为抗药物性急性肾脏疾病的新型肾保护剂。
    SF5
  • HY-P2610
    Ac-VEID-pNA Activator
    Ac-VEID-pNA 是一种人工合成的肽。Ac-VEID-pNA 用作 caspase 6 的底物,可在 VEID 的切割位点切割核纤层蛋白 A。
    Ac-VEID-pNA
  • HY-12466
    Z-DEVD-FMK Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Z-DEVD-FMK 是一种特异性的不可逆的 caspase-3 抑制剂,IC50 为 18 μM。
    Z-DEVD-FMK
  • HY-10396
    Emricasan

    恩利卡生

    Inhibitor 99.59%
    Emricasan (PF 03491390) 是一种口服有效的 不可逆 pan-caspase 抑制剂。Emricasan 抑制 Zika 病毒 (ZIKV) 诱导的 caspase-3 活性增加并保护了人类皮层神经祖细胞。
    Emricasan
  • HY-19696
    Tauroursodeoxycholate

    牛磺熊去氧胆酸

    Inhibitor 99.91%
    Tauroursodeoxycholate (Tauroursodeoxycholic acid) 是一种内质网应激抑制剂。Tauroursodeoxycholate 显著降低凋亡分子如 caspase-3caspase-12 表达。Tauroursodeoxycholate 也抑制 ERK
    Tauroursodeoxycholate
  • HY-14654
    Aspirin

    阿司匹林

    Activator 99.66%
    Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid) 是一种口服有效的不可逆的环氧合酶 COX-1COX-2 抑制剂,IC50 分别为 5 和 210 μg/mL. Aspirin 诱导细胞凋亡 (apoptosis)。Aspirin 可抑制 NF-κB 的活化。Aspirin 还抑制血小板前列腺素合成酶 (prostaglandin synthetase),可预防冠状动脉和脑血管血栓形成。
    Aspirin
  • HY-101297
    Z-IETD-FMK Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Z-IETD-FMK (Z-IE(OMe)TD(OMe)-FMK) 是一种具有细胞渗透作用的选择性 caspase-8 抑制剂。Z-IETD-FMK 也是颗粒酶 B (granzyme B) 抑制剂。
    Z-IETD-FMK
  • HY-16990
    Ac-YVAD-cmk Inhibitor
    Ac-YVAD-cmk (Caspase-1 Inhibitor II) 是一种选择性 caspase-1 (IL-1β转化酶,ICE) 抑制剂,具有神经保护和抗炎作用。Ac-YVAD-cmk能有效抑制 IL-1β 和 IL-18 的表达。Ac-YVAD-cmk 可抑制多种疾病的细胞焦亡 (pyroptosis )。
    Ac-YVAD-cmk
  • HY-B1081A
    Oxidopamine hydrobromide

    6-羟基多巴胺氢溴酸盐

    Activator 99.95%
    Oxidopamine (6-OHDA) hydrobromide 是神经递质多巴胺 (neurotransmitter dopamine) 的拮抗剂。Oxidopamine hydrobromide 是一种广泛应用的神经毒素,可选择性破坏多巴胺能神经元。Oxidopamine hydrobromide 促进 COX-2 激活,导致 PGE2 合成和促炎细胞因子 IL-1β 的分泌。Oxidopamine hydrobromide 可用于帕金森病 (PD)、注意缺陷多动障碍 (ADHD) 和莱施奈恩综合症的研究。
    Oxidopamine hydrobromide
  • HY-B1081
    Oxidopamine hydrochloride

    6-羟基多巴胺盐酸盐

    Activator 99.91%
    Oxidopamine (6-OHDA) hydrochloride 是神经递质多巴胺 (neurotransmitter dopamine) 的拮抗剂。Oxidopamine hydrochloride 是一种广泛应用的神经毒素,可选择性破坏多巴胺能神经元。Oxidopamine hydrochloride 促进 COX-2 激活,导致 PGE2 合成和促炎细胞因子 IL-1β 的分泌。Oxidopamine hydrochloride 可用于帕金森病 (PD)、注意缺陷多动障碍 (ADHD) 和莱施奈恩综合症的研究。
    Oxidopamine hydrochloride
  • HY-P1001
    Ac-DEVD-CHO Inhibitor 99.94%
    Ac-DEVD-CHO 是一种特异性 Caspase-3 抑制剂,Ki 值为 230 pM。
    Ac-DEVD-CHO
  • HY-121320
    Raptinal Activator ≥98.0%
    Raptinal 直接激活 caspase-3,可启动 caspase 依赖性的细胞凋亡内源性途径。Raptinal 能够通过直接激活效应 caspase-3来快速诱导癌细胞死亡,绕过启动子 caspase-8 和 caspase-9的激活。
    Raptinal
  • HY-19696A
    Tauroursodeoxycholate sodium

    牛磺熊去氧胆酸钠

    Inhibitor 98.88%
    Tauroursodeoxycholate (Tauroursodeoxycholic acid; TUDCA) sodium 是一种内质网应激抑制剂。Tauroursodeoxycholate 显著降低凋亡分子如 caspase-3caspase-12 表达。Tauroursodeoxycholate 也抑制 ERK
    Tauroursodeoxycholate sodium
  • HY-13594
    Chlorin e6
    Chlorin e6 是一种光敏剂,在波长 402 和 662 nm 处有较强的吸收峰,在 668 nm 处表现出强烈的荧光。Chlorin e6 具有抗菌功效和抗癌活性。Chlorin e6 通过激活 caspase-3 诱导细胞凋亡,可用于癌症的研究。
    Chlorin e6
目录号 产品名 / 同用名 种属 表达系统
目录号 产品名 / 同用名 应用 反应物种

Upon binding to their cognate ligand, death receptors such as Fas and TRAILR can activate initiator Caspases (Pro-caspase 8 and Pro-caspase 10) through dimerization mediated by adaptor proteins such as FADD and TRADD. Active Caspase 8 and Caspase 10 then cleave and activate the effector Caspase 3, 6 and 7, leading to apoptosis. ROS/DNA damage and ER stress trigger Caspase 2 activation. Active Caspase 2 cleaves and activates Caspase 3 and initiates apoptosis directly. Caspase 2, 8 and 10 can also cleave Bid, stimulate mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) and initiate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Following MOMP, mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins such as Smac and Cytochrome C are released into the cytosol. Cytochrome C interacts with Apaf-1, triggering apoptosome assembly, which activates Caspase 9. Active Caspase 9, in turn, activates Caspase 3, 6 and 7, leading to apoptosis. Mitochondrial release of Smac facilitates apoptosis by blocking the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins. 

 

Following the binding of TNF to TNFR1, TNFR1 binds to TRADD, which recruits RIPK1, TRAF2/5 and cIAP1/2 to form TNFR1 signaling complex I. Formation of the complex IIa and complex IIb is initiated either by RIPK1 deubiquitylation mediated by CYLD or by RIPK1 non-ubiquitylation due to depletion of cIAPs. The Pro-caspase 8 homodimer in complex IIa and complex IIb generates active Caspase 8. This active Caspase 8 in the cytosol then carries out cleavage reactions to activate downstream executioner caspases and thus induce classical apoptosis[1][2]

 

Reference:

[1]. Thomas C, et al. Caspases in retinal ganglion cell death and axon regeneration. Cell Death Discovery volume 3, Article number: 17032 (2017).
[2]. Brenner D, et al. Regulation of tumour necrosis factor signalling: live or let die. Nat Rev Immunol. 2015 Jun;15(6):362-74.

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