1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Apoptosis
  3. MDM-2/p53

MDM-2/p53 (MDM-2/p53)

The p53 tumor suppressor is a principal mediator of growth arrest, senescence, and apoptosis in response to a broad array of cellular damage. p53 is a short-lived protein that is maintained at low, often undetectable, levels in normal cells. Under stress conditions, the p53 protein accumulates in the cell, binds in its tetrameric form to p53-response elements and induces the transcription of various genes.

MDM-2 is transcriptionally activated by p53 and MDM-2, in turn, inhibits p53 activity in several ways. MDM-2 binds to the p53 transactivation domain and thereby inhibits p53-mediated transactivation. MDM-2 also contains a signal sequence that is similar to the nuclear export signal of various viral proteins and, after binding to p53, it induces its nuclear export. As p53 is a transcription factor, it needs to be in the nucleus to be able to access the DNA; its transport to the cytoplasm by MDM-2 prevents this. Finally, MDM-2 is a ubiquitin ligase, so is able to target p53 for degradation by the proteasome.

In many tumors p53 is inactivated by the overexpression of the negative regulators MDM2 and MDM4 or by the loss of activity of the MDM2 inhibitor ARF. The pathway can be reactivated in these tumors by small molecules that inhibit the interaction of MDM2 and/or MDM4 with p53. Such molecules are now in clinical trials.

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-15484
    Pifithrin-α hydrobromide p53 Inhibitor
    Pifithrin-α hydrobromide是 p53 抑制剂,可阻断其转录活性并阻止细胞凋亡。Pifithrin-α hydrobromide 同时为 aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) 的激动剂。
  • HY-10029
    Nutlin-3a MDM2 Inhibitor 98.07%
    Nutlin-3a 是 Nutlin-3 的活性对映体,是一种有效的 MDM2 抑制剂。Nutlin-3a 可抑制 MDM2-p53 相互作用,稳定 p53 蛋白,从而诱导细胞自噬 (autophagy) 和凋亡 (apoptosis)。Nutlin-3a 有潜力用于 TP53 野生型卵巢癌的研究。
  • HY-19980
    PRIMA-1Met p53 Activator ≥99.0%
    PRIMA-1Met 是一种突变型 p53 复活剂,可恢复突变型 p53 的野生型构象和功能,并引发肿瘤细胞凋亡。PRIMA-1Met 还抑制硒蛋白硫氧还蛋白还原酶 1 (TrxR1)。
  • HY-50696
    Nutlin-3 MDM2 Inhibitor 98.90%
    Nutlin-3 是一种有效的 p53-MDM2 抑制剂,Ki 为 90 nM。
  • HY-B0639
    Amifostine p53 Activator ≥98.0%
    Amifostine (WR2721) 是一种广谱细胞保护剂和辐射防护剂。Amifostine 可选择性保护正常组织免受放射线和化学疗法造成的损害。Amifostine 是有效的 HIF-α1p53 诱导剂。Amifostine 通过清除氧衍生的自由基来保护细胞免受损伤。Amifostine 可降低肾脏毒性并具有抗血管生成作用。
  • HY-137864
    Amifostine thiol Activator
    Amifostine thiol (WR-1065) 是细胞保护剂 Amifostine (HY-B0639) 的活性代谢物。Amifostine thiol 是一种具有辐射防护能力的细胞保护剂。Amifostine thiol 通过 JNK 依赖的信号通路激活 p53。
  • HY-10940
    Pifithrin-μ p53 Inhibitor 98.31%
    Pifithrin-μ 是一种 p53HSP70 的抑制剂,具有抗肿瘤和神经保护作用。
  • HY-13424
    RITA p53 Activator 99.57%
    RITA 是一种有效的 p53-HDM-2 相互作用抑制剂,可与 p53dN 结合,Kd 值为 1.5 nM,同时能够诱导 DNA-DNA 交联。
  • HY-17493
    MI-773 MDM2 Inhibitor 98.05%
    MI-773 是一种 MDM2-p53 相互作用抑制剂,高亲和力结合到 MDM2Ki 为 0.88 nM。
  • HY-18986
    SAR405838 MDM2 Inhibitor
    SAR405838是一种高效的选择性MDM2抑制剂, 与MDM2结合, Ki值为0.88 nM。
  • HY-19980A
    PRIMA-1 p53 Activator ≥98.0%
    PRIMA-1 (NSC-281668) 是一种突变型 p53 复活剂,可恢复 TP53 突变型甲状腺癌细胞对组蛋白甲基化抑制剂 3-Deazaneplanocin A 的敏感性。
  • HY-18634
    NSC319726 p53 Activator 98.07%
    NSC319726 (ZMC1) 是突变型p53R175再活化剂,能抑制表达p53R175的成纤维细胞增殖,IC50值为8nM,对野生型p53细胞无抑制作用。
  • HY-123076
    Pifithrin-α, p-Nitro, Cyclic p53 Inhibitor ≥99.0%
    Pifithrin-α, p-Nitro, Cyclic (PFN-α),是细胞通透性的 p53 抑制剂。Pifithrin-α, p-Nitro, Cyclic 对暴露于 Etoposide 的皮层神经元的保护作用比 Pifithrin-α 强一个数量级 (ED50=30 nM)。Pifithrin-α, p-Nitro, Cyclic 也作为 p53 转录后活性抑制剂。Pifithrin-α, p-Nitro, Cyclic 不阻止 p53 上的 S15 残基磷酸化。
  • HY-103640
    WR-1065 dihydrochloride p53 Activator ≥98.0%
    WR-1065 dihydrochloride 可以保护正常组织免受某些癌症药物的毒性作用,并通过 JNK 依赖性信号通路激活 p53
  • HY-N0068
    Solasodine MDM2 Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Solasodine (Purapuridine) 是类固醇生物碱,存在于茄科植物中。Solasodine 具有神经保护,抗真菌,降压,抗癌,抗动脉粥样硬化,抗雄激素和抗炎活性。
  • HY-16271
    Kevetrin hydrochloride p53 Activator ≥98.0%
    Kevetrin盐酸盐是一种肿瘤抑制蛋白p53的激动剂, 具有潜在的抗肿瘤活性。
  • HY-15869
    Inauhzin p53 Activator 99.49%
    Inauhzin 是 SirT1/IMPDH2 的双重抑制剂,同时为 p53 的激活剂,可用于癌症研究。
  • HY-16664
    SJ-172550 MDM2 Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    SJ-172550是MDMX的小分子抑制剂; 与野生型p53肽竞争性结合于MDMX的EC50值为5 μM。
  • HY-128784
    PK11007 p53 Activator 99.0%
    PK11007 是具有抗癌活性的温和硫醇烷基化剂。PK11007 通过两个表面暴露的半胱氨酸的选择性烷基化来稳定 p53,而不影响其 DNA 结合活性。PK11007 通过增加活性氧 (ROS) 水平诱导突变的 p53 癌细胞死亡。
  • HY-15335
    Nutlin-3b MDM2 Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Nutlin-3b 是一种 p53/MDM2 抑制剂,IC50 为 13.6 μM。Nutlin-3b 与 MDM2 的结合活性比 Nutlin-3a 低 150 倍。

p53 is at the centre of biological interactions that translates stress signals into cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Upstream signaling to p53 increases its level and activates its function as a transcription factor in response to a wide variety of stresses, whereas downstream components execute the appropriate cellular response. 

 

Cell Stress: p53 induction by acute DNA damage begins when DNA double-strand breaks trigger activation of ATM, a kinase that phosphorylates the CHK2 kinase, or when stalled or collapsed DNA replication forks recruit ATR, which phosphorylates CHK1. p53 is a substrate for both the ATM and ATR kinases, as well as for CHK1 and CHK2, which coordinately phosphorylate p53 to promote its stabilization. These phosphorylation events are important for p53 stabilization, as some of the modifications disrupt the interaction between p53 and its negative regulators MDM2 and MDM4. MDM2 and MDM4 bind to the transcriptional activation domains of p53, thereby inhibiting p53 transactivation function, and MDM2 has additional activity as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that causes proteasome-mediated degradation of p53. Phosphorylation also allows the interaction of p53 with transcriptional cofactors, which is ultimately important for activation of target genes and for responses such as cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, apoptosis and senescence. Non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl can also be activated by DNA damage. Then the JNK/p38 is activated and leads to p53 activation[1][2]

 

Oncogenic signaling: The response to oncogene activation depends on the binding of ARF to MDM2. ARF is normally expressed at low levels in cells. Inappropriately increased E2F or Myc signals, stemming from oncogene activation, leads to the increased expression of ARF, which inhibits MDM2 by blocking its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, uncoupling the p53-MDM2 interaction, thereby segregating it from nucleoplasmic p53[3].

 

The PI3K-Akt pathway activates MDM2 and increases the ubiquitination of p53. 

 

Reference:
[1]. Chène P, et al. Inhibiting the p53-MDM2 interaction: an important target for cancer therapy. Nat Rev Cancer. 2003 Feb;3(2):102-9.
[2]. Brown CJ, et al. Awakening guardian angels: drugging the p53 pathway. Nat Rev Cancer. 2009 Dec;9(12):862-73. 
[3]. Polager S, et al. p53 and E2f: partners in life and death. Nat Rev Cancer. 2009 Oct;9(10):738-48. doi: 10.1038/nrc2718.

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